Biochar Application for Soil Amendment

Biochar Application for Soil Amendment


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Biochar is a carbon-rich organic matter that is produced through the process of pyrolysis, which involves heating organic material in the absence of oxygen. The resulting biochar is a solid byproduct that contains more than 10% organic carbon. Biochar is known for its stability, taking over 100 years to break down, making it an effective way to sequester carbon. It is commonly used as a soil amendment and substrate for soilless media to improve soil quality.

Pros and Cons of Using Biochar


  • Improves soil quality by restoring degraded soil and removing heavy metal contaminants.
  • Increases water holding capacity, reducing water and nutrient leaching/loss.
  • Boosts nutrient availability and nitrogen retention, leading to higher crop yields.
  • Helps lower atmospheric carbon dioxide through carbon sequestration.
  • Provides an additional source of income for farmers through carbon credits.


  • Can lead to soil loss through wind erosion when applied on the soil surface.
  • High application rates can negatively affect earthworm and other beneficial worm survival rates.
  • Must be carefully balanced with plant nutrients to avoid nutrient absorption and unavailability.
  • Can affect soil health and productivity if produced from feedstocks with high levels of heavy metals.
  • May accumulate pesticides, potentially becoming a source of pollution for agricultural land.

Methods of Biochar Production

There are different methods for producing biochar, with pyrolysis being the most common. Pyrolysis can be either slow or fast, depending on the heating rate and residence time. Other methods include gasification, torrefaction, and flash carbonization. The quality and properties of biochar can vary depending on the feedstock biomass used.

Feedstock Biomass includes Animal, Plant, and Waste Products

Biochar can be produced from various sources, including plant residues, wood chips, leaf litter, rice husk, animal manure, and sewage sludge. The quality of biochar can differ based on the feedstock used. Plant-based biochars tend to have higher carbon content and surface area compared to those derived from animal sources.

Biochar Production

While biochar can be purchased from manufacturers, small-scale production can be cost-effective. A double barrel retort system is a popular method for producing biochar locally through pyrolysis. The system involves using one small barrel inside a larger barrel. The small barrel contains the biomass, while the larger barrel acts as the burning barrel.

To construct the double barrel system, you will need several materials and follow specific steps. Safety precautions are essential, including wearing heat-resistant gloves and glasses, having a source of water or a fire extinguisher, and following all fire and lab safety rules.

Regulating Temperature

To regulate the temperature during the biochar production process, you can increase or decrease the air supply from the fan and adjust the lid of the large barrel. It is important to monitor the temperature using a PID controller and thermocouples.

Safety Precautions

Several safety precautions should be followed during the biochar production process. These include wearing protective gear, having access to water or a fire extinguisher, not leaving the burning barrel unattended, and being mindful of the location and surroundings.


Biochar is a valuable soil amendment that can be produced through various methods, including pyrolysis using a double barrel system. This method allows for small-scale production and is cost-effective. However, it is crucial to construct the system correctly and follow safety precautions to ensure a successful and safe production process.

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